Afidopyropen is a novel pyropene insecticide that has been shown to be effective for the management of Aphis gossypii Glover. Establishing the susceptibility baseline of A. gossypii to this newly commercialized insecticide is important for ensuring its continued efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility baseline of field populations of A. gossypii to the novel insecticide afidopyropen. A total of 25 field populations of A. gossypii were collected in China from 2019 to 2020, and the susceptibility of these populations to afidopyropen was determined in the laboratory using a leaf-dipping method. The results indicated that afidopyropen was highly toxic to adult A. gossypii, and the LC50 values ranged from 0.009 mg L−1 to 0.435 mg L−1, suggesting that afidopyropen is effective for controlling A. gossypii. Interestingly, we found that A. gossypii collected from cotton plants showed higher tolerance to afidopyropen compared with individuals collected from the other host plants. The findings of our study will aid future efforts to monitor A. gossypii resistance to afidopyropen.