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Transvalvular pulmonic stent angioplasty: procedural outcomes and complications in 15 dogs with pulmonic stenosis
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology  (IF1.701),  Pub Date : 2021-09-24, DOI: 10.1016/j.jvc.2021.09.002
K. Borgeat, S. Gomart, E. Kilkenny, G. Chanoit, M.J. Hezzell, J.R. Payne

Introduction

Balloon valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice for dogs with severe type A pulmonic stenosis (PS), but less successful for dogs with annular hypoplasia and unsuitable for supravalvular stenosis or cases with a circumpulmonary coronary malformation. We report outcomes and complications of the first 15 consecutive transvalvular pulmonic stent angioplasty procedures performed by a single center in dogs with PS.

Animals

Fifteen dogs with naturally occurring PS were included in the study.

Materials and methods

Dogs underwent echocardiography before and four weeks after the procedure. Transvenous approaches were used to deploy a pre-mounted, balloon-expandable metallic stent in all cases.

Results

Of 15 dogs, all had annular hypoplasia, and in addition, supravalvular stenosis was diagnosed in 11 of 15 dogs, and three had R2A coronary malformation. All dogs survived to discharge. One dog died less than four weeks postoperatively (non-cardiac), but 14 of 15 dogs were re-examined at four weeks. Severity reduced in all cases; median pressure gradient reduced from 137 mmHg (range 81–202 mmHg) to 83 mmHg (range 31–155 mmHg). Clinical signs improved in all cases, and hematocrit reduced in all dogs with erythrocytosis. The median follow-up time was 280 days (range 95–896 days). Over one-year follow-up was available in six of fifteen dogs. Two dogs died because of refractory right-sided congestive heart failure signs: one at 10 months and one at 22 months postoperatively.

Conclusions

Transvalvular pulmonic stent angioplasty technique was associated with an improvement in clinical signs and reduction in stenosis severity for all dogs in this population, including cases with supravalvular PS or circumpulmonary coronary malformation.