Example：10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Divergent degeneration of creA antitoxin genes from minimal CRISPRs and the convergent strategy of tRNA-sequestering CreT toxins Nucleic Acids Research (IF16.971), Pub Date : 2021-09-22, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkab821 Feiyue Cheng, Rui Wang, Haiying Yu, Chao Liu, Jun Yang, Hua Xiang, Ming Li
Aside from providing adaptive immunity, type I CRISPR-Cas was recently unearthed to employ a noncanonical RNA guide (CreA) to transcriptionally repress an RNA toxin (CreT). Here, we report that, for most archaeal and bacterial CreTA modules, the creA gene actually carries two flanking ‘CRISPR repeats’, which are, however, highly divergent and degenerated. By deep sequencing, we show that the two repeats give rise to an 8-nt 5′ handle and a 22-nt 3′ handle, respectively, i.e., the conserved elements of a canonical CRISPR RNA, indicating they both retained critical nucleotides for Cas6 processing during divergent degeneration. We also uncovered a minimal CreT toxin that sequesters the rare transfer RNA for isoleucine, tRNAIleCAU, with a six-codon open reading frame containing two consecutive AUA codons. To fully relieve its toxicity, both tRNAIleCAU overexpression and supply of extra agmatine (modifies the wobble base of tRNAIleCAU to decipher AUA codons) are required. By replacing AUA to AGA/AGG codons, we reprogrammed this toxin to sequester rare arginine tRNAs. These data provide essential information on CreTA origin and for future CreTA prediction, and enrich the knowledge of tRNA-sequestering small RNAs that are employed by CRISPR-Cas to get addictive to the host.