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Innate immune detection of lipid oxidation as a threat assessment strategy
Nature Reviews Immunology  (IF53.106),  Pub Date : 2021-09-21, DOI: 10.1038/s41577-021-00618-8
Dania Zhivaki, Jonathan C. Kagan

Oxidized phospholipids that result from tissue injury operate as immunomodulatory signals that, depending on the context, lead to proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. In this Perspective, we posit that cells of the innate immune system use the presence of oxidized lipids as a generic indicator of threat to the host. Similarly to how pathogen-associated molecular patterns represent general indicators of microbial encounters, oxidized lipids may be the most common molecular feature of an injured tissue. Therefore, microbial detection in the absence of oxidized lipids may indicate encounters with avirulent microorganisms. By contrast, microbial detection and detection of oxidized lipids would indicate encounters with replicating microorganisms, thereby inducing a heightened inflammatory and defensive response. Here we review recent studies supporting this idea. We focus on the biology of oxidized phosphocholines, which have emerged as context-dependent regulators of immunity. We highlight emerging functions of oxidized phosphocholines in dendritic cells and macrophages that drive unique inflammasome and migratory activities and hypermetabolic states. We describe how these lipids hyperactivate dendritic cells to stimulate antitumour CD8+ T cell immunity and discuss the potential implications of the newly described activities of oxidized phosphocholines in host defence.