Dance is a complex sensorimotor activity with positive effects on physical fitness, cognition, and brain plasticity in the aging population. We explored whether individual levels of cognitive reserve (CR) proxied by education moderate dance intervention (DI)-induced plasticity assessed by resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes of the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and anterior default mode network (aDMN). Our cohort consisted of 99 subjects, randomly assigned to either a DI group who underwent a 6-month intervention (n = 49, Mage = 69.02 ± 5.40) or a control group (n = 50, Mage = 69.37 ± 6.10). Moderation analyses revealed that CR moderated DI-induced increase of the SMN rs-FC with significant changes observed in participants with ≥ 15 years of education (b = 0.05, t(62) = 3.17, p = 0.002). Only DI alone was a significant predictor of the DAN–aDMN crosstalk change (b = 0.06, t(64) = 2.16, p = 0.035). The rs-FC increase in the SMN was correlated with an improved physical fitness measure, and changes in the DAN–aDMN connectivity were linked to better performance on figural fluency. Consistent with the passive CR hypothesis, we observed that CR correlated only with baseline behavioral scores, not their change.