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Precision Medicine Trials in Retinal Degenerations
Annual Review of Vision Science  (IF6.422),  Pub Date : 2021-09-15, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-vision-100419-111701
Sarah R. Levi, Joseph Ryu, Pei-Kang Liu, Stephen H. Tsang

The beginning of the twenty-first century was marked by the innovative use of pharmacochemical interventions, which have since expanded to include gene-based molecular therapies. For years, treatment has focused on tackling the pathophysiology of monogenic orphan diseases, and one of the first applications of these novel genome editing technologies was the treatment of rare inherited retinal dystrophies. In this review, we present recent, ongoing, and future gene therapy–based treatment trials for choroideremia, X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, and age-related macular degeneration. As these trials pave the way toward halting the progression of such devastating diseases, we will begin to see the exciting development of newer, cutting-edge strategies including base editing and prime editing, ushering in a new era of precision medicine.