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Neuromodulatory Control of Early Visual Processing in Macaque
Annual Review of Vision Science  (IF6.422),  Pub Date : 2021-09-15, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-vision-100119-125739
Anita A. Disney

Visual processing is dynamically controlled by multiple neuromodulatory molecules that modify the responsiveness of neurons and the strength of the connections between them. In particular, modulatory control of processing in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, V1, and V2 will alter the outcome of all subsequent processing of visual information, including the extent to and manner in which individual inputs contribute to perception and decision making and are stored in memory. This review addresses five small-molecule neuromodulators—acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine—considering the structural basis for their action, and the effects of their release, in the early visual pathway of the macaque monkey. Traditionally, neuromodulators are studied in isolation and in discrete circuits; this review makes a case for considering the joint action of modulatory molecules and differences in modulatory effects across brain areas as a better means of understanding the diverse roles that these molecules serve.