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Clinical Status of Efflux Resistance Mechanisms in Gram-Negative Bacteria
Antibiotics  (IF4.639),  Pub Date : 2021-09-16, DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics10091117
Anne Davin-Regli, Jean-Marie Pages, Aurélie Ferrand

Antibiotic efflux is a mechanism that is well-documented in the phenotype of multidrug resistance in bacteria. Efflux is considered as an early facilitating mechanism in the bacterial adaptation face to the concentration of antibiotics at the infectious site, which is involved in the acquirement of complementary efficient mechanisms, such as enzymatic resistance or target mutation. Various efflux pumps have been described in the Gram-negative bacteria most often encountered in infectious diseases and, in healthcare-associated infections. Some are more often involved than others and expel virtually all families of antibiotics and antibacterials. Numerous studies report the contribution of these pumps in resistant strains previously identified from their phenotypes. The authors characterize the pumps involved, the facilitating antibiotics and those mainly concerned by the efflux. However, today no study describes a process for the real-time quantification of efflux in resistant clinical strains. It is currently necessary to have at hospital level a reliable and easy method to quantify the efflux in routine and contribute to a rational choice of antibiotics. This review provides a recent overview of the prevalence of the main efflux pumps observed in clinical practice and provides an idea of the prevalence of this mechanism in the multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The development of a routine diagnostic tool is now an emergency need for the proper application of current recommendations regarding a rational use of antibiotics.