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A C terminus-dependent conformational change is required for HDAC3 activation by nuclear receptor corepressors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry  (IF5.157),  Pub Date : 2021-09-11, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.101192
Jian Li,Chun Guo,Christopher Rood,Jinsong Zhang

Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays an important role in signal-dependent transcription and is dysregulated in diseases such as cancer. Previous studies have shown that the function of HDAC3 requires an activation step, which is mediated by the interactions of HDAC3 with the deacetylase-activation domain (DAD) of nuclear receptor corepressors and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4). However, the role of the unique HDAC3 C-terminal region in HDAC3 activation is elusive. Here multiple biochemical, structural, and functional studies show that HDAC3 activation requires a priming step mediated by the C terminus to remodel HDAC3 conformation. We show that multiple C-terminal mutations prevent HDAC3 activation by preventing this C terminus-dependent conformational change. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the C terminus-mediated function in altering HDAC3 conformation is required for proper complex formation of HDAC3 with DAD and IP4 by allowing HDAC3 to undergo IP4-dependent interaction with DAD. Remarkably, we found that this C terminus function is conformation dependent, being necessary for HDAC3 activation prior to but not after the conformational change. Together, our study defines two functional states of free HDAC3, reveals the complete HDAC3 activation pathway, and links the C terminus function to the specific interaction between HDAC3 and DAD. These results also have implications in how signaling pathways may converge on the C terminus to regulate HDAC3 and suggest that the C terminus-mediated conformational change could represent a new target for inhibiting HDAC3 in diseases such as cancer.