Example：10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Effect of collagen degradation on the mechanical behavior and wrinkling of skin Physical Review E (IF2.529), Pub Date : 2021-09-10, DOI: 10.1103/physreve.104.034406 Poorya Chavoshnejad, Ali H. Foroughi, Niranjana Dhandapani, Guy K. German, Mir Jalil Razavi
Chronological skin aging is a complex process that is controlled by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One major factor is the gradual degradation of the dermal collagen fiber network. As a step toward understanding the mechanistic importance of dermal tissue in the process of aging, this study employs analytical and multiscale computational models to elucidate the effect of collagen fiber bundle disintegration on the mechanical properties and topography of skin. Here, human skin is modeled as a soft composite with an anisotropic dermal layer. The anisotropy of the tissue is governed by collagen fiber bundles with varying densities, average fiber alignments, and normalized alignment distributions. In all finite element models examined, collagen fiber bundle degradation results in progressive decreases in dermal and full-thickness composite stiffness. This reduction is more profound when collagen bundles align with the compression axis. Aged skin models with low collagen fiber bundle densities under compression exhibit notably smaller critical wrinkling strains and larger critical wavelengths than younger skin models, in agreement with in vivo wrinkling behavior with age. The propensity for skin wrinkling can be directly attributable to the degradation of collagen fiber bundles, a relationship that has previously been assumed but unsubstantiated. While linear-elastic analytical models fail to capture the postbuckling behavior in skin, nonlinear finite element models can predict the complex bifurcations of the compressed skin with different densities of collagen bundles.