China has a vast land area with complex topography and landforms, of which the mountain area accounts for more than 60% of the total area. China is located between the Pacific Rim seismic zone and the Mediterranean-Himalayan earthquake zone, causing frequent earthquake disasters. Earthquake-linked secondary disasters cause far greater damage than themselves, and often cause geological disasters such as landslides and slope collapses in mountainous areas. The secondary disaster caused by the earthquake is closely related to the dynamic response of the slope and the dynamic characteristics of the slope. Geological structure of different slopes and the conditions of ground motion loading have different influences on the pressure and stability of the steep layer between soft and hard phases. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the main modes and processes of slope instability induced by strong earthquakes based on the dynamic response characteristics and laws of slopes, to explore the model deformation and failure phenomena during the test, and to analyze the different results of different lithological slope bodies. This article will use the research methods of specific problems and specific analysis to compare the data and draw conclusions. The research results show that under the common slope body, the acceleration of the falling object is different with different angle and height. Therefore, combined with the investigation of the deformation and failure of the slope in the earthquake zone, the dynamic response law of the rock slope is obtained, which provides a reasonable explanation for the collapse of many large landslides during the earthquake, and provides a theoretical basis for the future design of seismic structures and field slope monitoring and protection against disaster. Combined with physical simulation and numerical simulation methods, the instability and damage characteristics and mechanism of layered slopes under strong earthquake conditions are analyzed and demonstrated.