This study uses a social bonds framework to explore the main effects of race and five social bonds (attachment to peers, attachment to parents, school commitment, activity involvement) on adolescent substance use. We also explore whether social bonds have the capacity to enhance or mitigate the effects of race on substance use. We test this question using longitudinal data from a predominately Black sample of at-risk high school students (n = 783). Findings indicate that race exerts a strong main effect on substance where Black students experienced decreases in substance use over time relative to White students. The findings also suggest that race and social bonds do not interact to influence late-adolescent substance use.