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P13BP, a Calpain-2-Mediated Breakdown Product of PTPN13, Is a Novel Blood Biomarker for Traumatic Brain Injury
Journal of Neurotrauma  (IF5.269),  Pub Date : 2021-10-06, DOI: 10.1089/neu.2021.0229
Yubin Wang, James Brazdzionis, Fanglong Dong, Tye Patchana, Hammad Ghanchi, Stacey Podkovik, James G. Wiginton IV, Maxwell Marino, Jason Duong, Margaret Wacker, Dan E. Miulli, Michael Neeki, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry

Biomarkers play an increasing role in medicinal biology. They are used for diagnosis, management, drug target identification, drug responses, and disease prognosis. We have discovered that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite functions in neurodegeneration, with calpain-1 activation being neuroprotective, while prolonged calpain-2 activation is neurodegenerative. This notion has been validated in several mouse models of acute neuronal injury, in particular in mouse models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeated concussions. We have identified a selective substrate of calpain-2, the tyrosine phosphatase, PTPN13, which is cleaved in brain after TBI. One of the fragments generated by calpain-2, referred to as P13BP, is also found in the blood after TBI both in mice and humans. In humans, P13BP blood levels are significantly correlated with the severity of TBI, as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale scores and loss of consciousness. The results indicate that P13BP represents a novel blood biomarker for TBI.