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Effect of the powerful plasticity of the tert-butyl side chain on the conformational equilibrium of ascidiacyclamides
Journal of Peptide Science  (IF1.905),  Pub Date : 2021-08-30, DOI: 10.1002/psc.3363
Akiko Asano, Maki Nakagawa, Chihiro Miyajima, Mami Yasui, Katsuhiko Minoura, Takeshi Yamada, Mitsunobu Doi

Ascidiacyclamide [cyclo(-Ile1,5-oxazoline2,6-d-Val3,7-thiazole4,8-)2] is a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from ascidian. Through structural analyses using monosubstituted analogues (Xaa1: Ala, 2-aminobutyric acid, Val, cyclohexylglycine, and phenylglycine), we previously demonstrated the conformational equilibrium between its square and folded forms. As the bulkiness of the Xaa1 residue side chain was reduced, spontaneous folding was promoted, and the cytotoxicity decreased accordingly. In the present study, five disubstituted analogues in which a tert-leucine residue (Tle) was incorporated at the 5-position of the abovementioned monosubstituted analogues were synthesized, after which their structures were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism (CD) spectral measurements, and 1H NMR-based quantitative analysis. The side chains of the Tle and Ile residues are structural isomers of one another, and the Tle residue bearing the tert-butyl group can be expected to play a role as a building block. In fact, peptides incorporating Tle5 exhibited much less spontaneous folding than their Ile5 counterparts in both crystal and solution. Increases in enthalpy and entropy due to the tert-butyl group during the folding process resulted in increased conformational free energy (ΔG°). The powerful plasticity of the tert-butyl group would stabilize the square form relating with cytotoxicity.