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The current knowledge concerning solid cancer and therapy
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology  (IF3.642),  Pub Date : 2021-08-31, DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22900
Masoud Najafi, Jamal Majidpoor, Heidar Toolee, Keywan Mortezaee

Solid cancers comprise a large number of new cases and deaths from cancer each year globally. There are a number of strategies for addressing tumors raised from solid organs including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, combinational therapy, and stem cell and extracellular vesicle (EV) therapy. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the dominant cures, but are not always effective, in which even in a localized tumor there is a possibility of tumor relapse after surgical resection. Over half of the cancer patients will receive radiotherapy as a part of their therapeutic schedule. Radiotherapy can cause an abscopal response for boosting the activity of the immune system outside the local field of radiation, but it may also cause an unwanted bystander effect, predisposing nonradiated cells into carcinogenesis. In the context of immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibition is known as the standard-of-care, but the major concern is in regard with cold cancers that show low responses to such therapy. Stem-cell therapy can be used to send prodrugs toward the tumor area; this strategy, however, has its own predicaments, such as unwanted attraction toward the other sites including healthy tissues and its instability. A substitute to such therapy and quite a novel strategy is to use EVs, by virtue of their stability and potential to cross biological barriers and long-term storage of contents. Combination therapy is the current focus. Despite advances in the field, there are still unmet concerns in the area of effective cancer therapy, raising challenges and opportunities for future investigations.