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Estimation of the Phospholipase A2 Selectivity on POPC/POPG Membranes Using the Interaction Map
Biochemistry (Moscow), Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology  (IF),  Pub Date : 2021-08-27, DOI: 10.1134/s1990747821050032
Alekseeva, A. S., Volynsky, P. E., Boldyrev, I. A.

Abstract

The regulation of the activity and selectivity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which is capable of cleaving fatty acid in the second position (sn-2) of the phospholipid, is carried out through the membrane-binding and catalytic sites of the enzyme. For hydrolytic activity, PLA2 must first bind to the phospholipid membrane, and the binding efficiency depends on the composition of the membrane. The membrane-binding site of PLA2 is formed by several tens of amino acids and its composition differs from enzyme to enzyme; hydrophobic and positively charged amino acids play a key role in the interaction. In this work, we investigated the interaction of PLA2 from bee venom with phospholipid bilayers of palmitoyl oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) containing different amounts of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG). On the basis of the measurements of the protein intrinsic fluorescence and the anisotropy of the fluorescence of the lipid probe we propose the construction of lipid–protein interaction maps, which reflect both the efficiency of protein binding and changes in the structure of the membrane. These changes cause alterations in the fluorescence anisotropy of the label, which in turn is a measure of the mobility of the lipid environment of the fluorescent probe. Analysis of interaction maps showed that there is a relationship between lipid mobility and enzyme binding efficiency: the optimum interaction of PLA2 with membranes from a POPC/POPG mixture lies in the region of the highest lipid mobility, and not in the region of the highest negative charge. This dependence complements the existing understanding of the process of recognition of the membrane surface by the enzyme and the selection of lipids by the enzyme already bound to the membrane. The proposed mapping method can be extended to other membrane-active proteins.