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Teleost CD4+ helper T cells: Molecular characteristics and functions and comparison with mammalian counterparts
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology  (IF2.046),  Pub Date : 2021-08-25, DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110316
Hairong Tang, Xinyu Jiang, Jie Zhang, Chao Pei, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li, Xianghui Kong

CD4+ helper T cells play key and diverse roles in inducing adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. The CD4 molecule, which is found on the surfaces of CD4+ helper T cells, can be used to distinguish subsets of helper T cells. Teleosts are the oldest living species with bona-fide CD4 coreceptors. Although some components of immune systems of teleosts and mammals appear to be similar, many physiological differences are represented between them. Previous studies have shown that two CD4 paralogs are present in teleosts, whereas only one is present in mammals. Therefore, in this review, the CD4 molecular structure, expression profiles, subpopulations, and biological functions of teleost CD4+ helper T cells were summarized and compared with those of their mammalian counterparts to understand the differences in CD4 molecules between teleosts and mammals. This review provides suggestions for further studies on the CD4 molecular function and regulatory mechanism of CD4+ helper T cells in teleost fish and will help establish therapeutic strategies to control fish diseases in the future.