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Sustained high rates of morphological evolution during the rise of tetrapods
Nature Ecology & Evolution  (IF15.46),  Pub Date : 2021-08-23, DOI: 10.1038/s41559-021-01532-x
Simões, Tiago R., Pierce, Stephanie E.

The fish-to-tetrapod transition is one of the most iconic events in vertebrate evolution, yet fundamental questions regarding the dynamics of this transition remain unresolved. Here, we use advances in Bayesian morphological clock modelling to reveal the evolutionary dynamics of early tetrapodomorphs (tetrapods and their closest fish relatives). We show that combining osteological and ichnological calibration data results in major shifts on the time of origin of all major groups of tetrapodomorphs (up to 25 million years) and that low rates of net diversification, not fossilization, explain long ghost lineages in the early tetrapodomorph fossil record. Further, our findings reveal extremely low rates of morphological change for most early tetrapodomorphs, indicating widespread stabilizing selection upon their ‘fish’ morphotype. This pattern was broken only by elpistostegalians (including early tetrapods), which underwent sustained high rates of morphological evolution for ~30 Myr during the deployment of the tetrapod body plan.