The optimization of a transmission type bremsstrahlung conversion target was carried out with Monte Carlo code FLUKA for intense pulsed electron beams with electron energy of several hundred keV for maximum photon fluence. The photon emission intensity from electrons with energy ranging from 300 keV to 1 MeV on tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum targets was calculated with varied target thicknesses. The research revealed that higher target material element number and electron energy leads to increased photon fluence. For a certain target material, the target thickness with maximum photon emission fluence exhibits a linear relationship with the electron energy. With certain electron energy and target material, the thickness of the target plays a dominant role in increasing the transmission photon intensity, with small target thickness the photon flux is largely restricted by low energy loss of electrons for photon generation while thick targets may impose extra absorption for the generated photons. The spatial distribution of bremsstrahlung photon density was analyzed and the optimal target thicknesses for maximum bremsstrahlung photon fluence were derived versus electron energy on three target materials for a quick determination of optimal target design.