Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a significant burden for human health that is increasing in prevalence as the global population ages. There is growing recognition that current preclinical models of AD are insufficient to recapitulate key aspects of the disease. Laboratory models for AD include mice, which do not naturally develop AD-like pathology during aging, and laboratory Beagle dogs, which do not share the human environment. In contrast, the companion dog shares the human environment and presents a genetically heterogeneous population of animals that might spontaneously develop age-associated AD-like pathology and cognitive dysfunction. Here, we quantitatively measured amyloid beta (Aβ42 or Abeta-42) levels in three areas of the companion dog brain (prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus/entorhinal cortex) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a newly developed Luminex assay. We found significant positive correlations between Aβ42 and age in all three brain regions. Brain Aβ42 abundance in all three brain regions was also correlated with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Scale score in a multivariate analysis. This latter effect remained significant when correcting for age, except in the temporal cortex. There was no correlation between Aβ42 in CSF and cognitive scores; however, we found a significant positive correlation between Aβ42 in CSF and body weight, as well as a significant negative correlation between Aβ42 in CSF and age. Our results support the suitability of the companion dog as a model for AD and illustrate the utility of veterinary biobanking to make biospecimens available to researchers for analysis.