Because of its rich active ingredients, Chinese date is one of the key plants in the study of natural products. Polysaccharide is an important active ingredient in Chinese date. Recent studies have shown that Chinese date polysaccharide has good antioxidant activity, anti-tumor activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunomodulatory activity and hepatoprotective effect. Herein, the research progress on the extraction, purification, structure, activity and derivatization of Chinese date polysaccharides was reviewed. Several common extraction methods of Chinese date polysaccharide were compared, the new extraction methods of Chinese date polysaccharide were discussed, the purification methods of Chinese date polysaccharide were summarized, and the structure and activity of Chinese date polysaccharide were mainly discussed. Suggestions for structural reconstruction were put forward. The results provided a reference for the follow-up research, production and application of Chinese date polysaccharide, and laid a foundation for the development of Chinese date polysaccharide-related foods.