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The PI3K/Akt signaling axis in Alzheimer’s disease: a valuable target to stimulate or suppress?
Cell Stress and Chaperones  (IF3.667),  Pub Date : 2021-08-13, DOI: 10.1007/s12192-021-01231-3
Razani, Elham, Pourbagheri-Sigaroodi, Atieh, Safaroghli-Azar, Ava, Zoghi, Anahita, Shanaki-Bavarsad, Mahsa, Bashash, Davood

Among the long list of age-related complications, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has the most dreadful impact on the quality of life due to its devastating effects on memory and cognitive abilities. Although a plausible correlation between the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling and different processes involved in neurodegeneration has been evidenced, few articles reviewed the task. The current review aims to unravel the mechanisms by which the PI3K pathway plays pro-survival roles in normal conditions, and also to discuss the original data obtained from international research laboratories on this topic. Responses to questions on how alterations of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway affect Tau phosphorylation and the amyloid cascade are given. In addition, we provide a general overview of the association between oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, alterations of insulin signaling, and altered autophagy with aberrant activation of this axis in the AD brain. The last section provides a special focus on the therapeutic possibility of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR modulators, either categorized as chemicals or herbals, in AD. In conclusion, determining the correct timing for the administration of the drugs seems to be one of the most important factors in the success of these agents. Also, the role of the PI3K/Akt signaling axis in the progression or repression of AD widely depends on the context of the cells; generally speaking, while PI3K/Akt activation in neurons and neural stem cells is favorable, its activation in microglia cells may be harmful.