Epigenetic modifications, such as histone or DNA modifications are key regulators of gene transcription and changes are often associated with maladaptive processes underlying cardiovascular disease. Epigenetic regulators therefore likely play a crucial role in cardiomyocyte homeostasis and facilitate the cellular adaption to various internal and external stimuli, responding to different intercellular and extracellular cues. Class IIa histone deacetylases are a class of epigenetic regulators that possess a myriad of post-transcriptional modification sites that modulate their activity in response to oxidative stress, altered catecholamine signalling or changes in the cellular metabolism. This review summaries the known reversible, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) that ultimately drive transcriptional changes in homeostasis and disease. We also highlight the idea of a crosstalk of various PTMs on class IIa HDACs potentially leading to compensatory or synergistic effects on the class IIa HDAC-regulated cell behavior.