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Pharmacokinetics of S-epacadostat, an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 inhibitor, in dog plasma and identification of its metabolites in vivo and in vitro
Biomedical Chromatography  (IF1.902),  Pub Date : 2021-08-13, DOI: 10.1002/bmc.5226
Yumu Zhang, Xin Li, Yufei Sun, Xinghua Liu, Wenyan Wang, Jingwei Tian

S-epacadostat (S-EPA) is an efficient and selective small-molecule inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. It is an EPA analog with a sulfur atom instead of a nitrogen atom at the furazan C3 position. This study documents the pharmacokinetics of S-EPA in dogs and its metabolic pathway. After an oral administration of 15 mg/kg of S-EPA in dogs, the time to peak concentration was 0.80 h, the mean elimination half-life was 7.3 h, and the absolute bioavailability was 55.8%. Furthermore, we identified S-EPA metabolites in dog plasma and dog liver microsomes by UPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap HRMS. In dog plasma, we found five metabolites, which came from glucuronidation (M1 and M2), deoxygenation (the amidine M4), glucuronidation of M4 (M3), and desulfonamidation and oxidation of M4 (the carboxylic acid M5). In dog liver microsomes, we identified three major metabolites, namely, the glucuronide conjugate (M6), a mono-oxidation product (M7), and a desulfonamidation and oxidation product (M8). Gut microbiota may cause the differences between in vivo and in vitro oxidation metabolisms. Contrary to EPA, S-EPA did not undergo dealkylation, suggesting that substituting the nitrogen with sulfur affects the metabolism of the adjacent alkyl side chain.