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Cancer risk and nullity of Glutathione-S-transferase mu and theta 1 in occupational pesticide workers.
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology  (IF2.837),  Pub Date : 2021-08-09, DOI: 10.2174/1389201022666210810092342
Muhammad Usman,Kanu Priya,Soumya Pandit,Piyush Gupta

Occupational exposure to pesticides has been associated with adverse health conditions, including genotoxicity and cancer. Nullity of GSTT1/GSTM1 increases the susceptibility of pesticide workers to these adverse health effects due to lack of efficient detoxification process created by the absence of these key xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. However, this assertion does not seem to maintain its stance at all the time; some pesticide workers with the null genotypes do not present the susceptibility. This suggests the modulatory role of other confounding factors, genetic and environmental conditions. Pesticides, aggravated by the null GSTT1/GSTM1, cause genotoxicity and cancer through oxidative stress and miRNA dysregulation. Thus, the absence of these adverse health effects together with the presence of null GSTT1/GSTM1 genotypes demands further explanation. Also, understanding the mechanism behind the protection of cells - that are devoid of GSTT1/GSTM1 - from oxidative stress constitutes a great challenge and potential research area. Therefore, this review article highlights the recent advancements in the presence and absence of cancer risk in occupational pesticide workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes.