Dual inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways may delay therapeutic resistance in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This phase 3 study investigated the efficacy and safety of an erlotinib plus bevacizumab regimen in untreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In total, 311 patients received bevacizumab plus erlotinib (n = 157) or erlotinib only (n = 154). Progression-free survival (PFS) was 17.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2–19.9) for bevacizumab plus erlotinib and 11.2 months (95% CI, 9.7–13.8) for erlotinib only (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41–0.73; p < 0.001). A brain metastases subgroup treated with bevacizumab plus erlotinib also showed improved PFS (HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27–0.84; p = 0.008). Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 86 (54.8%) and 40 (26.1%) patients, respectively. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib significantly improved PFS in patients with untreated metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC, including those with brain metastases at baseline.