Antimicrobial resistance is not restricted to clinics but also spreading fast in the aquatic environment. This study focused on the prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among bacteria from lentic and effluent water in Delhi-NCR, India. Phenotypic screening of 436 morphologically distinct bacterial isolates collected from diverse sites revealed that 106 (∼24%) isolates were ESBL positive. Antibiotic profiling showed that 42, 60, 78 and 59% ESBL producing isolates collected from Ghazipur slaughterhouse, Lodhi garden pond, Hauz Khas lake and Jasola wastewater treatment plant, respectively, were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index varied from 0.20 to 0.32 among selected locations. The prevalence of ESBL gene variants blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were found to be 17.64, 35.29 and 64%, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of obtained gene sequences showed three variants of blaCTX-M (15, 152 and 205) and two variants of blaTEM (TEM-1 and TEM-116) among ESBL producers. The co-existence of 2–3 gene variants was recorded among 48% ESBL positive isolates. New reports from this study include the blaCTX-M gene in Acinetobacter lwoffii, Enterobacter ludwigii, Exiguobacterium mexicanum and Aeromonas caviae. Furthermore, the identification of blaTEM and blaSHV in an environmental isolate of A. caviae is a new report from India.