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Lentic and effluent water of Delhi-NCR: a reservoir of multidrug-resistant bacteria harbouring blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV type ESBL genes
Journal of Water & Health  (IF1.744),  Pub Date : 2021-08-01, DOI: 10.2166/wh.2021.085
Asghar Ali, Insha Sultan, Aftab Hossain Mondal, Mohammad Tahir Siddiqui, Firdoos Ahmad Gogry, Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul Haq

Antimicrobial resistance is not restricted to clinics but also spreading fast in the aquatic environment. This study focused on the prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among bacteria from lentic and effluent water in Delhi-NCR, India. Phenotypic screening of 436 morphologically distinct bacterial isolates collected from diverse sites revealed that 106 (∼24%) isolates were ESBL positive. Antibiotic profiling showed that 42, 60, 78 and 59% ESBL producing isolates collected from Ghazipur slaughterhouse, Lodhi garden pond, Hauz Khas lake and Jasola wastewater treatment plant, respectively, were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index varied from 0.20 to 0.32 among selected locations. The prevalence of ESBL gene variants blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were found to be 17.64, 35.29 and 64%, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of obtained gene sequences showed three variants of blaCTX-M (15, 152 and 205) and two variants of blaTEM (TEM-1 and TEM-116) among ESBL producers. The co-existence of 2–3 gene variants was recorded among 48% ESBL positive isolates. New reports from this study include the blaCTX-M gene in Acinetobacter lwoffii, Enterobacter ludwigii, Exiguobacterium mexicanum and Aeromonas caviae. Furthermore, the identification of blaTEM and blaSHV in an environmental isolate of A. caviae is a new report from India.