The main properties of halloysite, natural aluminosilicate nanotubes, are briefly considered in the review. Published data on the adsorption immobilization of proteins by halloysite and on catalytic properties of enzyme adsorption layers on the halloysite surface are analyzed and summarized. The results of authors’ studies dealing with physicochemical properties of halloysite samples are summarized. Data are given on the synthesis of zeolites, mesoporous molecular sieves, and nanotubes of silicon and aluminum oxides from halloysite. Possible pathways of halloysite synthesis under laboratory conditions are considered.