Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load is controlled by T-cell responses, which require vitamin A (VA) derived from food. However, whether dietary VA restriction for marbling impairs the T-cell responses that control BLV proviral load in beef cattle is unknown. We assessed T-cell subsets, interferon (IFN)-γ gene expression, and BLV proviral load in naturally BLV-infected Japanese Black cattle that were fed a diet with decreased VA levels. We found that the percentage of CD4+ T cells increased over time during dietary VA restriction. In addition, BLV proviral load was negatively correlated with the percentage of CD4+ T cells and with the level of IFN-γ gene expression. These observations suggest that dietary VA restriction for marbling enhances T-cell responses that control BLV proviral load and thus does not promote leukemogenesis in fattening beef cattle.