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Mineral and rare earth element distribution in the Tunçbilek coal seam, Kütahya, Turkey
International Journal of Coal Geology  (IF6.806),  Pub Date : 2021-07-20, DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2021.103820
Emine Cicioglu Sutcu, Sinem Şentürk, Kemal Kapıcı, Nezihe Gökçe

The mineral and rare earth element distributions of Tunçbilek coal, Turkey were studied and their potential to be a source for REY was investigated. The studied samples were taken from the BYJ, BYL, 48P open-pit mine panels and Ömerler and İğdekuzu underground mines. In order to observe the mineral and REE element distributions along the coal seam profile, samples were taken by using channel sampling method from the BYJ, BYL and 48P open-pit mine panels. On the other hand, representative samples which represent the whole coal seam including partings and clayey layers were taken from the same open-pit mine panels, İğdekuzu and Ömerler undergroud mines to investigate the REE distributions in the coalfield. The proximate, ICP-OES, XRF, SEM and XRD analyses were performed on the samples. Quartz, kaolinite and dolomite are the most abundant minerals in the samples. Smectite, mica, illite, pyrite and siderite are the second common minerals. In a few samples, alkali feldspar, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite, magnetite, feldspar, vermiculite and zeolite minerals are identified. In addition, monazite, florencite, baryte and thorite were detected in minor amounts using SEM analyses. The most abundant major oxides are SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Fe2O3, CaO and SO3 respectively. The K2O, MnO, Na2O, P2O5 and TiO2 major oxides are occur in lesser amounts. Kaolinite and quartz minerals might be the main sources of Al2O3 and SiO2 in the samples. The MgO, CaO, Fe2O3 and SO3 major oxides can be derived from mainly dolomite, siderite, feldspar, smectite, montmorillonite, serpentine and pyrite. The P2O5 and TiO2 are derived from the apatite, monazite, florencite, clay and mica minerals. The La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu elements in the samples have higher concentrations than the World brown coal averages. The total REY and LREY concentrations show similar distributions and reach high values at the south of the coal basin. However, the HREY and MREY concentrations are high at the Ömerler underground mine. The coal layers show HREY enrichment whereas the clayey coal and clayey layers indicate LREY type enrichment. The Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm elements are associated with the clay and phosphate minerals. Moreover, the Dy, Er, Gd, Ho, Lu, Pr, Tb, Tm and Yb are related to the pyrite, siderite and dolomite. The REY concentration in the Tunçbilek Basin is probably related to the terrigenous, tuffaceous and hydrothermal types of accumulations. The total REY concentration of the samples is below the cut-off grade (1000 μg/g) although the concentration coefficients of the Tunçbilek coal samples indicate slight enrichment. Based on the relation between cut-off grade and Coutl values, the Tunçbilek coal cannot be a potential source of REY.