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Comparison of Amino Acid PET to Advanced and Emerging MRI Techniques for Neurooncology Imaging: A Systematic Review of the Recent Studies.
Molecular Imaging  (IF4.488),  Pub Date : 2021-01-20, DOI: 10.1155/2021/8874078
Brittany M Stopa,Csaba Juhász,Sandeep Mittal

Introduction Standard neuroimaging protocols for brain tumors have well-known limitations. The clinical use of additional modalities including amino acid PET (aaPET) and advanced MRI (aMRI) techniques (including DWI, PWI, and MRS) is emerging in response to the need for more accurate detection of brain tumors. In this systematic review of the past 2 years of the literature, we discuss the most recent studies that directly compare or combine aaPET and aMRI for brain tumor imaging. Methods A PubMed search was conducted for human studies incorporating both aaPET and aMRI and published between July 2018 and August 2020. Results A total of 22 studies were found in the study period. Recent studies of aaPET with DWI showed a superiority of MET, FET, FDOPA, and AMT PET for detecting tumor, predicting recurrence, diagnosing progression, and predicting survival. Combining modalities further improved performance. Comparisons of aaPET with PWI showed mixed results about spatial correlation. However, both modalities were able to detect high-grade tumors, identify tumor recurrence, differentiate recurrence from treatment effects, and predict survival. aaPET performed better on these measures than PWI, but when combined, they had the strongest results. Studies of aaPET with MRS demonstrated that both modalities have diagnostic potential but MET PET and FDOPA PET performed better than MRS. MRS suffered from some data quality issues that limited analysis in two studies, and, in one study that combined modalities, overall performance actually decreased. Four recent studies compared aaPET with emerging MRI approaches (such as CEST imaging, MR fingerprinting, and SISTINA), but the initial results remain inconclusive. Conclusions aaPET outperformed the aMRI imaging techniques in most recent studies. DWI and PWI added meaningful complementary data, and the combination of aaPET with aMRI yielded the best results in most studies.