Find Paper, Faster
Example:10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Discerning the role of a functional arsenic-resistance cassette in the evolution and adaptation of a rice pathogen
Microbial Genomics  (IF5.237),  Pub Date : 2021-07-09, DOI: 10.1099/mgen.0.000608
Amandeep Kaur, Rekha Rana, Tanu Saroha and Prabhu B. Patil

Arsenic is highly toxic element to all forms of life and is a major environmental contaminant. Understanding acquisition, detoxification and adaptation mechanisms in bacteria that are associated with the host in arsenic-rich conditions can provide novel insights into the evolutionary dynamics of host–microbe–environment interactions. In the present study, we have investigated an arsenic-resistance mechanism acquired during the evolution of a particular lineage in the population of   Xanthomonas oryzae   pv. oryzae, which is a serious plant pathogen infecting rice. Our study revealed the horizontal acquisition of a novel chromosomal 12 kb ars cassette in   X. oryzae   pv. oryzae IXO1088 that confers high resistance to arsenate/arsenite. The ars cassette comprises several genes that constitute an operon induced in the presence of arsenate/arsenite. Transfer of the cloned ars cassette to   X. oryzae   pv. oryzae BXO512, which lacks the cassette, confers an arsenic-resistance phenotype. Furthermore, the transcriptional response of   X. oryzae   pv. oryzae IXO1088 under arsenate/arsenite exposure was analysed using RNA sequencing. Arsenic detoxification and efflux, oxidative stress, iron acquisition/storage, and damage repair are the main cellular responses to arsenic exposure. Our investigation has provided insights into the existence of a novel detoxification and adaptation mechanism within the   X. oryzae   pv. oryzae population to deal with high-arsenic conditions outside the rice plant.