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Probing Protein Secondary Structure Influence on Active Centers with Hetero Two-Dimensional Correlation (Resonance) Raman Spectroscopy: A Demonstration on Cytochrome C
Applied Spectroscopy  (IF2.388),  Pub Date : 2021-07-09, DOI: 10.1177/00037028211028916
Julian Hniopek, Thomas Bocklitz, Michael Schmitt, Jürgen Popp

The functionality of active centers in proteins is governed by the secondary and higher structure of proteins which often lead to structures in the active center that are different from the structures found in protein-free models of the active center. To elucidate this structure–function relationship, it is therefore necessary to investigate both the protein structure and the local structure of the active center. In this work, we investigate the application of hetero (resonance) Raman two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) to this problem. By employing a combination of near-infrared-Fourier transform-Raman- and vis-resonance Raman spectroscopy, we could show that this combination of techniques is able to directly probe the structure–function relationship of proteins. We were able to correlate the transition of the heme center in cytochrome c from low to high spin with changes in the secondary structure with the above mentioned two spectroscopic in situ techniques and without sample preparation. Thereby, we were able to reveal that the combination of a spectroscopic method to selectively observe the active center with a technique that monitors the whole system offers a promising toolkit to investigate the structure–function relationship of proteins with photoactive centers in general.