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Beneficial effect of dietary geranylgeraniol on glucose homeostasis and bone microstructure in obese mice is associated with suppression of proinflammation and modification of gut microbiome
Nutrition Research  (IF3.315),  Pub Date : 2021-07-09, DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2021.07.001
Eunhee Chung, Moamen M. Elmassry, Jay J Cao, Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M. Dufour, Abdul N Hamood, Chwan-Li Shen

Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is found in edible oils such as olive, linseed, and sunflower oils, which have favorable metabolic effects. However, it is unknown whether these physiological benefits are mediated through the gut microbiome. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that GGOH supplementation would improve glucose homeostasis and benefit the bone microstructure in obese mice through suppression of inflammation and modification of gut microbiota composition. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups: a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and an HFD supplemented with 800 mg GGOH/kg diet (GG) for 14 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were measured at baseline and end of study. The concentrations of adipokine cytokines (resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6) were measured via ELISA. Bone microarchitecture and quality were measured by micro-CT. Microbiome analysis was performed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on cecal content. Relative to the HFD group, the GG group: (1) improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity; (2) reduced production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, (3) increased serum procollagen I intact N-terminal propeptide (bone formation marker) concentrations, while decreasing serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (bone resorption marker) levels, and (4) increased stiffness at both femur and LV-4 and cortical thickness at femoral midshaft. Compared to the HFD group, the GG group had an increased abundance of Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum and decreased Dorea longicatena in the cecal microbiome. Collectively, GGOH improves glucose homeostasis and bone microstructure in obese mice, probably via suppression of pro-inflammation and modification of microbiome composition.