Drawing upon positive psychology and organizational learning literature, this study examines the relationship between well-being-oriented management (WOM) and unit-level ambidexterity. Building on the social exchange theory, our multilevel model sheds light on the relationship between individual perceptions of WOM, organizational learning, and unit-level ambidexterity in public hospitals. Based on the two-wave data obtained from 507 medical specialists, from 151 medical units, our multilevel analysis provides support for our two hypotheses. First, a positive relationship between WOM and unit-level ambidexterity was found. Second, organizational learning capability (OLC) moderated the relationship between WOM and unit-level ambidexterity. This study is one of the first to clarify the learning mechanisms through which WOM increases the development of unit-level ambidexterity in complex public organizations.