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Optimization of a Fabric Softener Formulation with an Electrochemical Sensor and Streaming Potential Measurements
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents  (IF1.902),  Pub Date : 2021-07-06, DOI: 10.1002/jsde.12537
Maja Aničić, Mateja Budetić, Tihana Dekanić, Katia Grgić, Tanja Pušić, Mirela Samardžić

An electrochemical, cationic, surfactant-selective sensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functionalized with a sulfate group and the cetylpyridinium ion (MWCNT–OSO3CP+) as a sensing material was used for optimization of the formulation of a fabric softener. Potentiometric titrations were performed and response measurements were obtained using four cationic surfactants (CS) of technical grade and four CS of analytical grade. The slope closest to Nernstian was obtained for di-(tallow carboxyethyl) hydroxyethyl methylammonium methosulfate (MAS) (59.5 ± 1.1 mV/decade of activity in water and 57.5 ± 1.3 mV/decade of activity in CaCl2). When using CS as analytes in potentiometric titrations, the best accuracy (99.8%) was obtained when using MAS; therefore, it was chosen as the CS for the fabric softener formulation. Due to the better properties of fabric softeners with silicone in their formulations, four silicones at several concentration levels were used as potential additives. Based on the stability and viscosity of the system, the diquaternary polydimethylsiloxane (DPS) (w = 0.19%) was chosen for the fabric softener formulation. The pH did not significantly influence the potential when in the range of 3–8 or the recovery of potentiometric titrations when in the range of 3–7. The application profile of the CS was assessed through streaming potential measurements of reference fabrics in an electrokinetic analyzer. The obtained electrokinetic parameters indicated on lag in adsorption of model fabric softener (MFS) based on MAS (w = 9%), with the addition of silicone DPS (MFS 3), on cotton and polyester fabrics, but advantage in stability when compared with other MFS investigated.