Androgens stimulate ovarian development in eels. Our previous report indicated a correlation between the initial (debut) ovarian status (determined by kernel density estimation (KDE), presented as a probability density of oocyte size) and the consequence of 17MT treatment (change in ovary). The initial ovarian status appeared to be an important factor influencing ovarian androgenic sensitivity. We postulated that the sensitivities of initial ovaries are correlated with their gene expression profiles. Japanese eels underwent operation to sample the initial ovarian tissues, and the samples were stored in liquid nitrogen. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, ovarian transcriptomic data were mined and analyzed based on functional gene classification with cutoff-based differentially expressed genes (DEGs); the ovarian status was transformed into gene expression profiles globally or was represented by a set of gene list. Our results also implied that the initial ovary might be an important factor influencing the outcomes of 17MT treatments, and the genes related with neuronal activities or neurogenesis seemed to play an essential role in the positive effect.