Gastropod molluscs are among the most abundant species that inhabit coral reef ecosystems. Many are specialist predators, along with the giant triton snail Charonia tritonis (Linnaeus, 1758) whose diet consists of Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish), a corallivore known to consume enormous quantities of reef-building coral. C. tritonis are considered vulnerable due to overexploitation, and a decline in their populations is believed to have contributed to recurring A. planci population outbreaks. Aquaculture is considered one approach that could help restore natural populations of C. tritonis and mitigate coral loss; however, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding their life cycle, including the molecular factors that regulate their reproduction and development. In this study, we have established a reference C. tritonis transcriptome derived from developmental stages (embryo and veliger) and adult tissues. This was used to identify genes associated with cell signalling, such as neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), involved in endocrine and olfactory signalling. A comparison of developmental stages showed that several neuropeptide precursors are exclusively expressed in post-hatch veligers and functional analysis found that FFamide stimulated a significant (20.3%) increase in larval heart rate. GPCRs unique to veligers, and a diversity of rhodopsin-like GPCRs located within adult cephalic tentacles, all represent candidate olfactory receptors. In addition, the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which participates in the biosynthesis and degradation of steroid hormones and lipids, was also found to be expanded with at least 91 genes annotated, mostly in gill tissue. These findings further progress our understanding of C. tritonis with possible application in developing aquaculture methods.