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Low-temperature and effective ex situ group V doping for efficient polycrystalline CdSeTe solar cells
Nature Energy  (IF60.858),  Pub Date : 2021-06-24, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-021-00848-z
Deng-Bing Li, Canglang Yao, S. N. Vijayaraghavan, Rasha A. Awni, Kamala K. Subedi, Randy J. Ellingson, Lin Li, Yanfa Yan, Feng Yan

CdTe solar cell technology is one of the lowest-cost methods of generating electricity in the solar industry, benefiting from fast CdTe absorber deposition, CdCl2 treatment and Cu doping. However, Cu doping has low photovoltage and issues with instability. Doping group V elements into CdTe is therefore a promising route to address these challenges. Although high-temperature in situ group V doped CdSeTe devices have demonstrated efficiencies exceeding 20%, they face obstacles including post-deposition doping activation processes, short carrier lifetimes and low activation ratios. Here, we demonstrate low-temperature and effective ex situ group V doping for CdSeTe solar cells using group V chlorides. For AsCl3 doped CdSeTe solar cells, the dopant activation ratio can be 5.88%, hole densities reach >2 × 1015 cm3 and carrier lifetime is longer than 20 ns. Thus, ex situ As doped CdSeTe solar cells show open-circuit voltages ~863 mV, compared to the highest open-circuit voltage of 852 mV for Cu doped CdSeTe solar cells.