To evaluate the lateral sealing mechanism of extensional fault based on the pressure difference between fault and reservoir, an integral mathematical-geological model of diagenetic time on diagenetic pressure considering the influence of diagenetic time on the diagenetic pressure and diagenetic degree of fault rock has been established to quantitatively calculate the lateral sealing ability of extensional fault. By calculating the time integral of the vertical stress and horizontal in-situ stress on the fault rock and surrounding rock, the burial depth of the surrounding rock with the same clay content and diagenesis degree as the target fault rock was worked out. In combination with the statistical correlation of clay content, burial depth and displacement pressure of rock in the study area, the displacement pressure of target fault rock was calculated quantitatively. The calculated displacement pressure was compared with that of the target reservoir to quantitatively evaluate lateral sealing state and ability of the extensional fault. The method presented in this work was used to evaluate the sealing of F1, F2 and F3 faults in No.1 structure of Nanpu Sag, and the results were compared with those from fault-reservoir displacement pressure differential methods without considering the diagenetic time and simple considering the diagenetic time. It is found that the results calculated by the integral mathematical-geological model are the closest to the actual underground situation, the errors between the hydrocarbon column height predicted by this method and the actual column height were 0–8 m only, proving that this model is more feasible and credible.