Based on outcrop, drilling, logging, geochemical analysis and seismic data, the karst landform and distribution of Permian volcanic rocks at the end of the sedimentary period of the Maokou Formation in the western Sichuan Basin are examined, and their petroleum geological significance is discussed. Affected by normal faults formed in the early magmatic activities and extension tectonic background in the late sedimentary period of the Maokou Formation, a local karst shallow depression under the background of karst slope came up in the Jianyang area of the western Sichuan Basin, where the residual thickness of the Maokou Formation was thinner. Basic volcanic rocks like pyroclastic rock of eruptive facies, basalt of overflow facies, diabase porphyrite of intrusive facies and sedimentary tuff of volcanic sedimentary facies were formed after karstification. However, under the effects of faulting and karst paleogeomorphology, the volcanic rocks in different areas had different accumulation features. In the Jianyang area, with long eruption time, the volcanic rocks were thick and complex in lithology, and accumulated in the karst depressions. In the Zhongjiang-Santai area located in the karst slope, there’s no fault developed, only thin layers of basalt and sedimentary tuff turned up. The karst landform controls the build-up of thick explosive facies volcanic rocks and also the development of karst reservoirs in the Maokou Formation, and the western Sichuan area has oil and gas exploration potential in volcanic rocks and the Maokou Formation.