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Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination in Laguna Lake, Philippines
Journal of Water & Health  (IF1.744),  Pub Date : 2021-06-01, DOI: 10.2166/wh.2021.059
Laurice Beatrice Raphaelle O. dela Peña, Mark Raymond A. Vejano, Windell L. Rivera

Water quality deterioration in source waters poses increased health, environmental, and economic risks. Here, we genotyped Cryptosporidium spp. obtained from water samples of Laguna Lake, Philippines, and its tributaries for the purpose of source-tracking fecal contamination. A total of 104 surface water samples were collected over a 1-year period (March 2018 to April 2019). Detection of Cryptosporidium was carried out using genus-specific primers targeting a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The study revealed 8 (14%) tributary samples and 1 (2.77%) lake sample positive for contamination. The species were determined to be C. parvum (n = 4), C. muris (n = 2), C. hominis (n = 1), C. galli (n = 1), C. baileyi (n = 1), C. suis (n = 1), as well as rat genotype IV (n = 1). Two species were detected in duck (C. baileyi) and cattle (C. parvum) fecal samples. The data presented suggest that Cryptosporidium contamination is likely to come from sewage or human feces as well as various agricultural sources (i.e. cattle, swine, and poultry). This information reveals the importance of mitigating fecal pollution in the lake system and minimizing health risks due to exposure to zoonotic Cryptosporidium species.