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Example:10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Warming increases tolerance of an insect pest to fungicide exposure through temperature-mediated hormesis
Journal of Pest Science  (IF5.918),  Pub Date : 2021-06-20, DOI: 10.1007/s10340-021-01398-9
Corentin Iltis, Jérôme Moreau, Paul Hübner, Denis Thiéry, Philippe Louâpre

Pest management strategies relying on agrochemicals could be altered by climate change, because of the temperature-dependent toxicity of the compound involved. Many studies have explored the response of targeted pests to pesticide and temperature. Pesticides are seldom strictly selective and also affect nontarget pests. Surprisingly, the way temperature may shape these side effects of pesticides remains overlooked, limiting our understanding of the net impacts of future chemical treatments on the overall damage induced by different pests. We investigated how temperature modulates the response of a major grape insect pest (the tortricid moth Lobesia botrana) to a copper-based fungicide. We examined the lethal (larval survival) and sublethal (larval development, pupal mass, immune parameters) effects of exposure to different concentrations of copper in larval food. We found that copper concentration had negative linear effects on larval development and pupal mass. In addition, copper concentration had biphasic curvilinear effects on total phenoloxidase activity, which is indicative of hormesis (stimulation and inhibition of insect performance at low and high copper concentrations, respectively). Temperature stimulated development, while compromising immunity (total phenoloxidase activity). Significant interaction between copper concentration and temperature was detected for larval survival and phenoloxidase activity: warmer conditions improved pest tolerance to copper through temperature-driven hormesis (larval survival) or by shifting the hormesis-related peak of performance toward higher copper concentrations (phenoloxidase activity). This combination of simple and interactive effects could propagate to populations, communities and agroecosystem, with implications for future management of viticultural pests.