Plasmalogens are a group of lipids mainly found in the cell membranes. They occur in anaerobic bacteria and in some protozoa, invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Their occurrence in plants and fungi is controversial. They can protect cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, protect other phospholipids or lipoprotein particles against oxidative stress, and have been implicated as signaling molecules and modulators of membrane dynamics. Biosynthesis in anaerobic and aerobic organisms occurs by different pathways, and the main biosynthetic pathway in anaerobic bacteria was clarified only this year (2021). Many different analytical techniques have been used for plasmalogen analysis, some of which are detailed below. These can be divided into two groups: shotgun lipidomics, or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in combination with high performance liquid chromatography (LC-MS). The advantages and limitations of both techniques are discussed here, using examples from anaerobic bacteria to specialized mammalian (human) organs.