The article describes the experience in the development and research of automatic power-control systems and operating modes for various equipment of the thermal power plants gained at the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute over the past 20 years. Further, it presents a unique file of the results of dynamic and certification tests of thermal power plants’ equipment of various types. The transient processes of the main control actions are described, and technological characteristics of the most representative experiments aimed at checking the conformance of the equipment with the requirements of the rated primary frequency control (RPFC) when simulating step deviations of the frequency for gas-and-oil-burning power-generating plants with a condensing turbine and a drum boiler and for a combined-cycle plant are provided. Stages and results of the research on this subject that had a significant influence on the development of the control systems in Russia are reviewed. For example, the research project on exploring the possibility and feasibility of engaging the cross-connection thermal power plants in the RPFC initiated by the System Operator of the Unified Energy System (SO UES) is described and the results of experimental implementation of the RPFC requirements at a cross-connection thermal power plant exemplified by the Priufimskaya TPP are presented. A long and important phase of the work conducted at the institute to engage the thermal power plants in solving tasks in energy systems was a study into the influence of the control modes on the operation of the equipment supported by the SO UES and conducted in 2009–2013. In the course of the research, approaches to the determination of the probable reduction in the cost-efficiency and reliability of the thermal power plants were developed. The introduction of the power reserves was analyzed. The results of the study facilitated the effective development of the energy service market in Russia. All researches on the automatic control conducted at the institute are based not only on experimental results and calculations but also on model-based investigations. As an example, the article provides results of studying the efficiency of equipping thermal power plants with automatic power-control systems. The tasks of the current research aimed at ensuring reliable and correct interaction between the automatic power-control systems and the emergency control automatics are formulated.