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New mAbs facilitate quantification of secreted equine TNF-α and flow cytometric analysis in monocytes and T cells
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology  (IF2.046),  Pub Date : 2021-06-10, DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110284
Christiane L. Schnabel, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Elisabeth M. Larson, Bettina Wagner

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine, that is involved in acute inflammation and is employed as a biomarker of inflammatory diseases in several species for which reliable quantification is available. We aimed to develop suitable tools to quantify TNF-α in equine samples. We generated two new mAbs against equine TNF-α (clones 48 and 292), evaluated their specificity for this cytokine, and confirmed detection of native TNF-α in stimulated equine PBMC. The TNF-α mAbs were paired in a fluorescent bead-based assay for quantification of equine TNF-α. The TNF-α assay had a wide quantification range of 12 pg/mL - 38.4 ng/mL. In addition, TNF-α mAb 48 was used for a detailed analysis of TNF-α production in PBMC by intracellular staining and flow cytometry. TNF-α was expressed by CD14+ monocytes after LPS stimulation and by monocytes and lymphocytes after polyclonal stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in vitro. TNF-α expressing lymphocytes consisted mainly of CD4+ T cells. CD8+ T cells and other lymphocytes also expressed TNF-α. The new mAbs evaluated here for soluble and intracellular TNF-α will enable the detailed analysis of this important pro-inflammatory cytokine during equine immune responses and inflammatory diseases of the horse.