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Protective effect of surfactin on copper sulfate-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and hepatic injury in zebrafish
Microbiology and Immunology  (IF1.955),  Pub Date : 2021-06-07, DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12924
Ying Wang, Jiahui Tian, Feifei Shi, Xuan Li, Zhuran Hu, Jie Chu

Surfactin, an antibacterial peptide, produced by various Bacillus subtilis strains, have broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune-enhancing functions. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effect of surfactin on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae following their exposure to copper sulfate (CuSO4). The mature AB wild-type and a transgenic line of zebrafish larvae that expressed enhanced GFP (EGFP) named Tg (Lyz:EGFP) were exposed to 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg/mL surfactin after incubation with 3.2 μg/mL CuSO4 for 2 h from 72 h postfertilization (hpf). Different endpoints, such as migration of GFP-labeled neutrophils, analysis of inflammatory cytokines and transaminases, markers of oxidation, expression of certain genes, and histological changes of liver, were studied to evaluate the function of surfactin. The protein expression levels of NF-κBp65, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and iNOS were determined in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by western blotting. Our results show that surfactin reduced migration of neutrophils and relieved hepatic injury. In addition, surfactin reduced the index levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress response, and improved hepatic function. Surfactin also significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, nitric oxide, NF-κBp65, COX-2, and iNOS, and increased the expression of IL-10. Thus, our results demonstrate that surfactin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. Surfactin has potential as a novel inflammation and immune adjustment.