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Glass ceramic ZERODUR®: Even closer to zero thermal expansion: a review, part 2
Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems  (IF1.436),  Pub Date : 2021-06-01, DOI: 10.1117/1.jatis.7.2.020902
Peter Hartmann, Ralf Jedamzik, Antoine Carré, Janina Krieg, Thomas Westerhoff

Observational astronomy has sought better telescopes with higher resolution from its beginning. This needs ever-larger mirrors with stable, high-precision surfaces. The extremely low-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® has enabled such mirrors for more than 50 years with significant improvements in size and quality since then. We provide a survey of the progress achieved in the last 15 years. Equally important as the thermal expansion coefficient CTE is its homogeneity. The CTE variation in 4-m mirror blanks lies below 5 ppb / K in radial and axial directions on large and short scales. Improved measurement capabilities allow reduced bias, which in the past made variations look greater than they were. Isotropy and uniformity of ZERODUR are outstanding. A method for lifetime calculation increases reliability considerably with respect to mechanical loads. The production and metrology capability and capacity are greatly extended. Surface figure and texture of large blanks allow starting directly with polishing. Filigree structures with up to 90% weight reduction are well-suited for space mirrors. The progress with low thermal expansion and its measurement, the insensitivity of ZERODUR against ionizing radiation in space, and outstanding application examples are presented in the first part of our review.