Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) have arisen as a robust class of nanomaterials with many applications. Properties such as higher metallic conductivity, high surface area, ease of functionalization, active metallic hydroxide sites, hydrophilicity and biocompatibility make MXenes ideal candidates for environmental remediation, energy storage, catalysis and sensors. Despite the growing interest in MXene materials, there are relatively few reports on MXenes. Thus, there is a need for a comprehensive, up-to-date review concerning its recent development in environmental remediation, focusing on addressing future challenges and prospects. This study systematically reviews the recent progress in the MXenes preparation, characterization, and their applications as adsorbents in membrane filtration and photocatalytic agent for various organics, heavy metal ions, radionuclides and gaseous contaminants remediations. The results suggested that MXene-based materials are promising alternatives to conventional materials such as activated carbon and graphene for environmental applications. Finally, various future research challenges were also highlighted to better understand the current research and development of MXene-based materials. This review aims to encourage and attract engineers and material scientists to explore the use of MXenes in environmental remediation technologies.