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Rel–$C^\infty$ structures on Gromov–Witten moduli spaces
Journal of Symplectic Geometry  (IF0.707),  Pub Date : 2021-03-01, DOI: 10.4310/jsg.2021.v19.n2.a4
Mohan Swaminathan

We show that moduli spaces of transversely cut-out (perturbed) pseudo-holomorphic curves in an almost complex manifold carry canonical relative smooth structures (“relative to the moduli space of domain curves”). The main point is that these structures can be characterized by a universal property. The tools required are ordinary gluing analysis combined with some fundamental results from the polyfold theory of Hofer–Wysocki–Zehnder.